Learn English vocabulary free – SahajEnglish

A strong vocabulary improves all areas of communication i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. If we know the meaning of the words our comprehension improves and thus improving our reading ability. Learn English vocabulary free online at SahajEnglish to enhance your English communication and comprehension. A rich Vocabulary is important for one to express their ideas and understand others’. It helps you to read and understand completely. It also allows one to make a good impression on others. This page has identified most commonly used words in English language. Please go through and build a strong vocabulary and improve the word power.

Able Having sufficient power to accomplish something
Absurd Very unreasonable, illogical, or inappropriate
Accuse To charge with an offense or crime
Across On the opposite side
Bitter An unsavory or disagreeable taste
Blame To hold responsible
Boast To speak with excessive pride
Borrow To receive something with the intention of returning it
Bowl A container with a broad mouth
Boycott Refusal to deal with
Burst To break open suddenly
Clash Confront; fight; conflict
Climate The typical weather
Compromise A mutually agreeable solution
Concern To worry; anxiety
Condemn To find guilty
Confess To tell the truth about bad behavior
Convention A meeting of many persons; a general custom
Credit To give money or recognition
Crisis A dangerous moment
Curse Bad words or bad wish
Damage To harm or destroy
Deaf Without hearing
Deed Something that is done; a document of ownership; to donate
Defeat Loss of a contest
Deficit A lack; low amount
Democracy A form of government decided by voting
Devote To give or dedicate for exclusive use
Dictate To read for a person to transcribe;
Ecology Study of organisms and the environment
Edge The border of an object; to defeat by a small margin
Elect To select, usually by voting
Embassy The office of a foreign government
Fence A border or enclosure
Fierce Very aggressive and combative
Fertile Agriculturally productive
Fiber A thread or filament
Gallon An american unit of measure equal to 3.785 liters
Grant To give or transfer formally
Grave A hole dug in the ground to receive a coffin or dead body
Grind To reduce to powder or small fragments
Harmony A pleasing or congruent arrangement; a combination of simultaneous musical notes
Heal To restore to original purity or integrity
Hijack Take by force
Hostage A prisoner held for a price
Hostile Marked by malevolence
However In whatever manner or way
Humor The quality of being amusing or comic
Impulse A force that produces sudden motion
Insane Mentally sick or disordered
Invade To enter for conquest or plunder
Insure To take necessary measures and precautions
Idealistic Of high moral or intellectual value
Ideological Concerned with or suggestive of ideas
Jaw Each of the upper and lower bony structures of the mouth containing the teeth
Jury A group of people who are members of the public and are chosen to make a decision in a legal case
Jurisdictions The power or right to make judgments about the law, to arrest and punish criminals
Justice The process or result of using laws to fairly judge and punish crimes and criminals
Jargon Special words or expressions used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand
Kneel To move your body so that one or both of your knees are on the floor
Knit To make (a piece of clothing) from yarn or thread by using long needles or a special machine
Knock To hit something with a hard object
Knuckle Any one of the thick, bony parts (called joints) in your fingers
Kick To hit (someone or something) with your foot
Knee The joint that bends at the middle of your leg
Kindness The quality or state of being kind
Lead To guide on a way by going in advance
Leak To enter or escape through an opening
Muscle Body tissue that can contract; physical power or strength
Moderate An average amount; to make less extreme
Mob A large crowd of disorderly people
Mist Fine cloud of droplets; to cover with mist
Minor Small or underage
Moral Of good behavior; a lesson
Mass Body of matter with no definite shape
Motion A movement; to signal
Mystery A puzzle; something difficult to understand
Nail The hard protective part at the end of each finger; a thin pointed and headed fastener designed to be pounded in
Narrow A small width; to reduce a distance
Native Belonging to a particular place by birth; aboriginal
Nerve The fibers that transmit impulses of sensation to the brain or spinal cord
Nowhere Not in or to any place
Negligent Not being careful or giving enough attention to people or things that are your responsibility
Negotiable Open to discussion or modification
Obey To follow the commands or guidance
Occupy To engage the attention; to take up a place
Observe To inspect or take note; to celebrate solemnly
Offend To cause difficulty, discomfort, or injury
Oppress To burden physically or mentally
Organic Relating or derived from living organisms
Pacific Peaceful in character or intent
Pioneer A person who is among the first to explore or settle a new country or area
Plenty Enough or more than enough, or a large amount
Pity The feeling of sorrow and compassion caused by the sufferings and misfortunes of others
Quest A long search for something that is difficult to find, or an attempt to achievesomething difficult
Query A question, often expressing doubt about something or looking for an answerfrom an authority
Quarter One fourth (1/4); a place to live; to cut in quarters
Recession A period when the economy of a country is not successful and conditions forbusiness are bad
Recreation An act done for enjoyment when one is not working
Regret Feel sad, or disappointed over something that one has done or failed to do
Rescue Save someone from a dangerous or difficult situation
Resist Withstand the action or effect of
Restrain To control the actions or behaviour of someone by force
Reveal To make known or show something that was previously secret
Sail A piece of material extended on a mast to catch the wind and propel a boat or ship or other vessel
Satellite An artificial body placed in orbit round the earth or another planet in order to collect information or for communication
Sausage An item of food in the form of a cylindrical length of meat  that has been cut into very small pieces and mixed with spices
Scratch To cut or damage a surface or your skin slightly with or on somethingsharp or rough
Screw A short, sharp-pointed metal pin  with a raised helical thread used to join things together by being rotated
Tribe A group of people,who live together, sharing the same language, culture, and history, especially those who do not live in cities
Term A word or phrase used to express a concept, especially in a particular kind of language or branch of study
Terrible Extremely bad or serious
Territory An area of land  or sometimes sea under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state
Treasure Very valuable objects, usually in the form of a store of precious metals,precious stones, or money
Urge Try earnestly or persistently to persuade someone to do particular something
Usual Habitually or typically occurring or done
Unless Except if
Utility The state of being useful, profitable, or beneficial
Ugly Not pretty or attractive
Valley A low point usually between mountains
Verse A poem; to be familiar with
Version A variation
Veto To disapprove
Vice Moral imperfection
Victim A person who is injured
Violate To break a rule
Virtue A beneficial quality
Ward To guard or prevent; a division in a hospital
Wet Covered with liquid such as water
Wild Without regulation or control
Wreck To ruin or damage
Xray Radiation of short wave length; a image taken with xrays
Yard An english measure; the ground adjacent to a house
Yogurt A product made of fermented milk
Yet Up to now
Zero Nothing;to adjust the aim
Accounting The occupation of maintaining and auditing records and preparing financial reports for a business
Agreement A decision reached by two or more people or groups
Asset Anything of value that is owned
Board Of Directors A group of people elected by the stockholders of a corporation to set the policies for the corporation.
Bonus An additional payment (or other remuneration) to employees as a means of increasing output
Budget A summary of intended expenditures along with proposals for how to meet them
Business The activity of providing goods and services involving financial and commercial and industrial aspects
Capital Wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
Commercial A commercially sponsored ad on radio or television
Contract A binding agreement between two or more persons that is enforceable by law
Credit Arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services
Customer Service Department The department in a retail organization that handles customer inquiries and complaints
Disruption An unexpected event that throws a plan into disorder; an interruption that prevents a system or process from continuing as usual or as expected.
Downsizing A planned reduction in the number of employees needed in a firm in order to reduce costs and make the business more efficient
End User The person or group who will use the product produced by the project.
Entrepreneur A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business
Headquarters (usually plural) the office that serves as the administrative center of an enterprise
Human Resources Maintains policies, plans, and procedures for the effective management of employees
Interest The price paid for the use of borrowed money
Inventory (accounting) the value of a firm’s current assets including raw materials and work in progress and finished goods
Investment Putting money into something in order to make a profit
Launch To officially start something
Liability An amount owed by a business
Lien The right to take another’s property if an obligation is not discharged
Loan An amount of money given to the borrower for a set period of time. after the set time has passed, the money must be paid back plus the lending fee, called interest. payments are normally made over a series of months.
Logistics The process of strategically managing the efficient flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption
Management Those in charge of running a business
Manager Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished
Market The world of commercial activity where goods and services are bought and sold
Marketing The commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service
Meeting A formally arranged gathering
Networking Using contacts with friends and family members as a means of finding job leads
Objective The goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)
Opportunity Cost Cost in terms of foregone alternatives
Outsourcing Contracting out selected functions or activities of an organization to other organizations that can do the work more cost efficiently
Party A person involved in legal proceedings
Personnel Staff, employees, work force
Presentation A show or display
Profit The amount of money left over after expenses are taken out
Promotion Act of raising in rank or position
Quarter One of four equal parts into which anything is or may be divided.
R&D Research and development: business or government activity that is purposely designed to stimulate invention and innovation
Recruitment Finding new people to join an organization
Sales Department The division of a business that is responsible for selling products or services
Shareholder Someone who holds shares of stock in a corporation
Staff Personnel who assist their superior in carrying out an assigned task
Stakeholder Any group within or outside the organization that has a stake in the organization’s performance
Telecommuting Involves working at home usually on a computer
Terms The amount of money needed to purchase something, any of a variety of conditions attached to a financial transaction.
Venture Capital Money that is invested in new or emerging companies that are perceived as having great profit potential
3-D Three dimensional
Actor / Actress The main lead characters of a movie, drama or theater
Amphitheater An oval large stadium with tiers of seats
Artist A person who practises or performs any of the creative arts, such as a sculptor, film-maker, actor, or dancer.
Audience The assembled spectators or listeners at a public event such as a play, film, concert, or meeting.
Caption Brief description accompanying an illustration
Carnival A travelling show
Cast The actors taking part in a play, film, or other production
Choreographer A person who composes the sequence of steps and moves for a performance of dance.
Coming Attractions A movie that is advertised to draw customers
Composer A person who writes music, especially as a professional occupation.
Credits A list of acknowledgements of those who contributed to the creation of a film (usually run at the end of the film)
Dancer A person who performs dances in movies or other shows
Director A person who directs the actors how to perform the screnecs in movies or dramas etc.
Docudrama A film or tv program presenting the facts about a person or event
Drummer A person who plays the drums
Episode A happening that is distinctive in a series of events
Exibit Show; make visible or apparent
Fair Free from favoritism, bias, or deception
Feature A prominent attribute or aspect of something
Home Movie A film made at home by an amateur photographer
Infotainment A film or tv program presenting the facts about a person or event
Motion Picture A form of entertainment that enacts a story by sound and a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement
Sequence A following of one thing after another in time
Short Subject A brief film; often shown prior to showing the feature
Athletics Track and field’ events of running, jumping, throwing, etc.
Award To give someone something as a reward for high achievement
Beat To defeat someone in a game or a competition
Captain The leader of a team
Catch To grab and hold something that has been thrown
Cheer On To shout encouragement to a team or a player
Compete To take part in a contest or a competition
Defeat To win a victory over opponents in a game or contest; to beat
Defend To protect one’s goal rather than attempt to score against one’s opponents
Draw To finish a contest or game with an even score; tie
Final Score The score at the end of a game
Half-Time The interval between the first and second halves of a game
Manager The person in charge of a sports team
Object The thing you want to get or achieve; what you aim to do
Opponent The person one competes against in a contest or a game; rival
Pass To throw or kick the ball to another player on one’s own team
Perform To carry out a practised activity, such a play a sport
Physique The form or shape of a person’s body
Practise To repeatedly do something in order to develop one’s skill
Rules The laws or regulations that govern how a game or sport is played
Score The number of points a competitor or team earns during a game
Serve To hit the ball to begin play (in tennis, table tennis, squash, volleyball, etc.)
Shoot To kick, hit, or throw the ball in an attempt to score a goal (in soccer, hockey, basketball, etc.)
Tackle To challenge an opponent who has the ball
Train To teach a skill over time through instruction; to practise a skill
Adjudication The final judgment in a legal proceeding
Adverse In an opposing direction
Aggrieve Infringe on the rights of
Arbiter Someone chosen to judge and decide a disputed issue
Commence Set in motion, cause to start
Decedent Someone who is no longer alive
Disburse Expend, as from a fund
Ensue Issue or terminate in a specified way
Hypothetical A conjectural possibility or circumstance
Imminent Close in time; about to occur
Provision A stipulated condition
Rationale An explanation of the fundamental reasons
Redress Make reparations or amends for
Sanction Official permission or approval
Suffice Be adequate, either in quality or quantity
Vacate Cancel officially
Absorbed Retained without reflection
Aspiration A cherished desire
Brilliance A light within the field of vision that is brighter than the brightness to which the eyes are adapted
Engage Consume all of one’s attention or time
Feigned Not genuine
Flourish Grow vigorously
Foresight Seeing ahead; knowing in advance; foreseeing
Foster Providing nurture though not related by blood or legal ties
Gauge An instrument for measuring and indicating a quantity
Glimpse A brief or incomplete view
Indicative Pointing out or revealing clearly
Mood A characteristic state of feeling
Morals Motivation based on ideas of right and wrong
Primeval Having existed from the beginning
Striving An effortful attempt to attain a goal
Wisdom Accumulated knowledge or erudition or enlightenment
 Accusation An assertion that someone is guilty of a fault or offence
 Allegation A formal accusation against somebody
 Aspiration A cherished desire
 Cadre A nucleus of military personnel capable of expansion
 Deception A misleading falsehood
 Demagogue A leader who seeks support by appealing to popular passions
 Dictatorship A form of government in which the ruler is unconstrained
 Engagement A meeting arranged in advance
 Feud A bitter quarrel between two parties
 Fiasco A complete failure or collapse
 Lobby A large entrance or reception room or area
 Opportunist A person who places expediency above principle
 Patriarchy A form of social organization in which men hold power
 Plutocracy A political system governed by the wealthy people
 Proxy A person authorized to act for another
 Saga A narrative telling the adventures of a hero or a family
 Scandal A disgraceful event
 Sloth A disinclination to work or exert yourself
Aunt The sister (or sister-in-law)of your mother/father
Baby A very young child
Bachelor A man who has never been married
Bride A woman on her wedding day, or just before or just after it
Bridegroom/Groom A man on his wedding day, or just before or just after it
Brother A boy or man who has the same parents as another person
Brother-In-Law The husband of your sister
Cousin The child of your aunt/uncle
Daughter Somebody’s female child
Daughter-In-Law The wife of your son
Divorce The legal ending of a marriage; end your marriage legally
Elder Brother/Sister A brother/sister who is older than you
Father Somebody’s male parent
Father-In-Law The father of your spouse
Grandchild Somebody’s son’s or daughter’s child
Grandchildren The children of your children
Granddaughter The daughter of one of your children
Grandfather The father of your father/mother
Grandmother The mother of your father/mother
Grandparents The parents of your parents
Grandson The son of one of your children
Great Grandfather The father of your grandfather/grandmother
Great Grandmother The mother of your grandfather/grandmother
Half-Brother The brother you have only one parent in common with .
Half-Sister The sister you only have one parent in common with.
Honeymoon A holiday taken by a couple who have just got married
Husband The man who a woman is married to
Infant A baby or very young child, newborn child
Marriage Legal relationship between a husband and wife
Mother Somebody’s female parent
Mother-In-Law The mother of your spouse
Nephew The male child of your brother/sister
Niece The female child of your brother/sister
Parent Somebody’s father or mother
Sibling A brother or sister
Single A person who isn’t married and doesn’t have a boyfriend/girlfriend
Sister A girl or woman who has the same parents as another person
Sister-In-Law The wife of your brother
Son Somebody’s male child
Son-In-Law The husband of your daughter
Spinster A woman who has never been married
Spouse Somebody married to another person; husband or wife
Stepbrother The son of your stepmother or stepfather
Stepdaughter The daughter of your (new) husband / wife (she is not your biological daughter)
Stepfather The (new) husband of your mother but not your biological father
Stepmother The (new) wife of your father but not your biological mother
Stepsister The daughter of your stepmother or stepfather
Stepson The son of your (new) husband / wife (he is not your biological son)
Toddler A young child who has just learnt to walk
Uncle The brother (or brother-in-law) of your mother/father
Wedding The act of marrying, a marriage ceremony
Wife The woman who a man is married to
Analysis Abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts
Approach Move towards
Area The extent of a two-dimensional surface within a boundary
Assessment The act of judging a person or situation or event
Assume Take to be the case or to be true
Authority The power or right to give orders or make decisions
Available Obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service
Benefit Something that aids or promotes well-being
Concept An abstract or general idea inferred from specific instances
Consistent The same throughout in structure or composition
Constitutional Existing as an essential characteristic
Context The set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation
Contract A binding agreement that is enforceable by law
Create Bring into existence
Data A collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
Definition A concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase
Derived Formed or developed from something else; not original
Distribution The act of spreading or apportioning
Economic Of or relating to production and management of wealth
Environment The totality of surrounding conditions
Established Brought about or set up or accepted
Estimate Judge tentatively
Evidence Knowledge on which to base belief
Export Sell or transfer abroad
Factor Anything that contributes causally to a result
Financial Involving fiscal matters
Formula A group of symbols that make a mathematical statement
Function What something is used for
Identified Having the identity known or established
Income The financial gain accruing over a given period of time
Indicate Designate a place, direction, person, or thing
Individual Being or characteristic of a single thing or person
Interpretation The act of expressing something in an artistic performance
Involved Connected by participation or association or use
Issue Some situation or event that is thought about
Labour Productive work (especially physical work done for wages)
Legal Established by or founded upon law or official rules
Legislation The act of making or enacting laws
Major Greater in scope or effect
Method A way of doing something, especially a systematic way
Occur Come to pass
Percent A proportion in relation to a whole
Period An amount of time
Policy A plan of action adopted by an individual or social group
Principle A basic generalization that is accepted as true
Procedure A particular course of action intended to achieve a result
Process A particular course of action intended to achieve a result
Required Necessary by rule
Research A seeking for knowledge
Response The speech act of continuing a conversational exchange
Abnormal Not typical or usual or regular
Acupuncture Treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
Addictive Causing or characterized by addiction
Adulthood The period of time in life after physical growth has stopped
Aerobics Exercise that increases the need for oxygen
Aids A serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
Alcohol A volatile compound made by distillation
Allergy Hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen
Anemia A deficiency of red blood cells
Anorexia A prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
Antidote A remedy that stops or controls the effects of a poison
Anxiety A vague unpleasant emotion in anticipation of a misfortune
Appetite A feeling of craving something
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that can cause disease
Blood The fluid that is pumped through the body by the heart
Blood Pressure The pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels; results from the systole of the left ventricle of the heart; sometimes measured for a quick evaluation of a person’s health
Body An individual 3-dimensional object that has mass
Bones A percussion instrument consisting of a pair of hollow pieces of wood or bone (usually held between the thumb and fingers) that are made to click together (as by spanish dancers) in rhythm with the dance
Booze An alcoholic beverage that is distilled rather than fermented
Breath The process of taking in and expelling air during breathing
Breathe Draw air into, and expel out of, the lungs
Calcium A white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light
Calorie Unit of heat raising 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade
Cardiac Of or relating to the heart
Cereal Grass whose starchy grains are used as food: wheat
Circulation The movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels
Collapse Break down, literally or metaphorically
Cuisine The manner of preparing food or the food so prepared
Culinary Of or relating to or used in cooking
Dehydration The process of extracting moisture
Depression A sunken or lowered geological formation
Diagnostic Concerned with identifying the nature or cause of something
Diet The usual food and drink consumed by an organism
Diner A person eating a meal (especially in a restaurant)
Dinner The main meal of the day served in the evening or at midday
Disability When one cannot perform due to physical or mental unfitness
Disease An impairment of health
Dish A piece of dishware normally used as a container for holding or serving food
Disorder A condition in which things are not in their expected places
Drinking The act of consuming liquids
Drive Operate or control a vehicle
Drug A substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic
Eatery A place where people go to hav a meal
Eating The act of consuming food
Epidemic A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
Fast Food Inexpensive food prepared and served quickly
Ferment Cause to undergo the breakdown of sugar into alcohol
Folic Acid A b vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
Pharmacy A retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold
Physiotherapy Therapy that uses physical agents: exercise and massage and other modalities
Zinc A bluish-white lustrous metallic element
Activated Rendered active
Barrier A structure or object that impedes free movement
Body Language Communication via the movements or attitudes of the body
Communicate Transfer to another
Communication The activity of conveying information
Computerize Provide with computers
Confuse Mistake one thing for another
Co-Worker An associate that one is employed with
Distract Draw someone’s attention away from something
Effective Producing or capable of producing an intended result
Eye Contact Contact that occurs when two people look directly at each other
Face-To-Face Directly facing each other
Facial Of or concerning the front of the head
Facial Expression A gesture executed with the facial muscles
Highlight An area of lightness in a picture
Inattentive Showing a lack of awareness, concentration, or care
Ineffective Not producing an intended consequence
Install Set up for use
Interactive Capable of influencing each other
Interfere Get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action
Interview The questioning of a person ; often conducted by journalists
Involve Contain as a part
Job Candidate An applicant who is being considered for a job
Make Sense Be reasonable or logical or comprehensible
Message A communication that is written or spoken or signaled
Nonverbal Not using spoken or written language to communicate
Oral Communication (language) communication by word of mouth
Organize Arrange by systematic planning and united effort
Phone Message A message transmitted by telephone
Receiver A person who receives something
Send A Message Give or constitute a signal, not necessarily verbally
Sender Someone who transmits a message
Spoken Word A word that is spoken aloud
Teamwork Cooperative labor done by a group
Two-Way Involving two parts or elements
Verbal Of or relating to or formed from words in general
Verbally By means of language
Workplace A place where work is done
Destination The place designated as the end, as of a race or journey
Fly Travel through the air; be airborne
Globetrotter Someone who travels widely and often
Guide Someone employed to conduct others
Journey The act of traveling from one place to another
Map A diagrammatic representation of the earth’s surface
Move Change location
Roam Move about aimlessly or without any destination
Step The act of changing location by raising the foot and setting it down
Tour A route all the way around a particular place or area
Trek Any long and difficult trip
Voyage A journey to some distant place
Acid Rain Rain that contains harmful chemicals that collect in the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned
Carbon-Dioxide/Carbon A gas that’s released by plants and by burning fossil fuels
Carcinogen A substance that has been linked to causing one or more types of cancer
Clear-Cut To destroy a forest by cutting down all the trees
Clearcutting/Clearfelling A forestry or logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are cut down
Climate change Global changes in temperature, wind patterns, rainfall, etc. mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil
Conservation The protection and preservation of natural environments and resources
Contaminated Carrying harmful bacteria or toxins that can cause disease or death
Domestic waste/Household waste Rubbish or garbage from a house or apartment
Eco-Community/Ecovillage A community with environmentally-friendly buildings, clean technology and renewable energy like solar and wind
Ecosystem The complex system of relationships between living things and their environment
Endangered species Animals or plants in danger of becoming extinct or disappearing in the near future
Energy-efficient Able to use less energy especially of vehicles, appliances etc.
Environmentalist A person who protects the natural world and educates others about environmental problems
Extinct No longer existing or lost forever used especially for animals, birds and plants etc.
Fertilize To add chemicals or organic material to soil so that plants grow better
Food Chain The order in which organisms in an ecosystem eat one another
Fossil Fuel A fuel like oil or coal formed from very old plant and animal fossils
Global warming/Climate change Higher air and sea temperatures partly caused by man-made increases in greenhouse-gas levels
Greenhouse gas A gas in the atmosphere that stops heat from escaping into space
Habitat The place in which a species normally lives
Hazardous waste Dangerous substances that need careful disposal eg. toxic or nuclear waste
Pesticide A chemical that’s sprayed on crops to stop insects from destroying them
Pollutant A substance or material that damages the natural environment
Pollution The contamination of the environment, esp. by industrial waste products and chemicals like pesticides
Recycle To make something new from materials that have been used before
Reforestation The planting of trees and plants to help a damaged or destroyed forest recover
Renewable Can be used without running out, esp. of energy sources like solar and wind
Smog A thick dirty cloud at ground level caused by pollutants reacting to sunlight
Toxic Deadly or poisonous waste, chemicals, pollutants etc.
Wildlife Animals, birds, insects, etc. living naturally in the wild
Zero-emission Releasing no greenhouse gases like carbon-dioxide or methane
Bright Full of light; when the sun is shining strongly
Cloudy With many clouds in the sky
Damp Slightly wet (often after the rain has stopped
Downpour Heavy rain
Drizzle To rain lightly with very fine drops
Flood To become covered in water usually due to excessive rain
Fog/foggy Thick cloud close to land
Gloomy With dark clouds and dull light; some people consider this weather depressing
Hail When frozen rain falls as small balls of ice (hailstones
Hailstones The small hard balls of ice that fall from the sky
Haze/hazy Light mist, usually caused by heat
Mist/misty Light fog, often on the sea or caused by drizzle
Overcast Covered with cloud; dull
Pour To have heavy rain
Rain Water that falls from the clouds in drops
Shower A short period of rain
Snow Frozen rain that falls from the sky as soft snowflakes
Snowflake An individual piece of snow
Sunny The sun is shining and there are no clouds
Torrential rain Very heavy rain
Ahimsa A buddhist and hindu and especially jainist doctrine holding that all forms of life are sacred and urging the avoidance of violence
Allah Muslim name for the one and only god
Atheist Someone who denies the existence of god
Atonement The act of making amends for sin or wrongdoing
Bible The sacred writings of the christian religions
Bishop A senior member of the christian clergy
Brahminism The religious beliefs of ancient india as prescribed in the sacred vedas and brahmanas and upanishads
Buddha Founder of buddhism; worshipped as a god (c 563-483 bc)
Buddhism The teaching of buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Conversion A change of religion
Dharma Basic principles of the cosmos
Divine Being or having the nature of a god
Faith A strong belief in a divine power or powers
Fundamentalism The interpretation of sacred texts as literal truth
Goddess A female deity
Gospel The written body of teachings accepted by a religious group
Guru A hindu or buddhist religious leader and spiritual teacher
Hajj A pilgrimage to mecca that is a religious duty for muslims
Halal Conforming to dietary laws
Hare Krishna A religious sect founded in the united states in 1966
Hinduism A body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to india and based on a caste system; it is characterized by a belief in reincarnation, by a belief in a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a desire for liberation from earthly evils
Idol A material effigy that is worshipped
Imam The person who leads prayers in a mosque
Jainism Religion founded in the 6th century bc as a revolt against hinduism; emphasizes asceticism and immortality and transmigration of the soul; denies existence of a perfect or supreme being
Jesus Christ A teacher and prophet born in bethlehem and active in nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for christianity (circa 4 bc – ad 29)
Jihad A holy struggle by a muslim for a moral or political goal
Judaism The monotheistic religion of the jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the torah and in the talmud
Karma The effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny
Krishnaism Worship of krishna the 8th avatar of vishnu
Mosque A muslim place of worship that usually has a minaret
Muhammad The arab prophet who, according to islam, was the last messenger of allah (570-632)
Muslim A believer in or follower of islam
Pope The head of the roman catholic church
Quran The sacred writings of islam revealed by god to the prophet muhammad during his life at mecca and medina
Reincarnation The doctrine that a person may be reborn successively
Saint A person who has died and has been canonized
Saktism A hindu sect worshiping shakti
Salvation The act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
Secular Not concerned with or devoted to religion
Secularization Removal of religion as a control or influence over something
Sharia The code of law derived from the koran and from the teachings and example of mohammed
Shiah Islam One of the two main branches of orthodox islam
Shivaism A hindu sect worshiping shiva
Shrine A place of worship associated with something sacred
Sikhism The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern india in the 16th century by guru nanak and combining elements of hinduism and islam
Sufism Islamic mysticism
Sunni Islam One of the two main branches of orthodox islam
Temple A place of worship
Untouchable Belongs to lowest social and ritual class in india
Veda Any of the most ancient sacred writings of hinduism written in early sanskrit; traditionally believed to comprise the samhitas, the brahmanas, the aranyakas, and the upanishads
Christmas It is an annual Chistian festival celebrates Christ’s birth and is held on 25th December. People go to churches, exchange gifts and spend the day with their families and friends.
Diwali Diwali is festivals of lights celebrated by Hindus across the world. People worships goddes Lakshmi and Lord Ganesha and light nemroud clay lamps filled with oild on this day.
Easter Christians celebrate ressurection of Christ on Easter. People attend churches and follow differenet Easter customs oof their places. People make engg trees and decorate them like Christmas trees.
Eid-al-fitr Eid-al-fitr is a muslim festival celebrated at the end of Ramadan.
Hannukah Jews light candles in a special candleholder called a menorah for eight days in each November or December. They do this to remember an ancient miracle in which one day’s worth of oil burned for eight days in their temple
Holi It is festival of colors, celebrated by Hindus around the world especially in India at the end of winter and beginning of spring.
Magha Puja Day Magha Puja Day takes places on the full moon day of the third lunar month (March). This holy day is to commemorate an important event in the life of the Buddha, the fourfold assembly.
Mahavir Jayanti Mahavira’s birthday is on the 13th day of the month of Caitra in the Indian calendar, which falls in late March or early April. Mahavira’s auspicious birth is observed by both Jain sects, the Digambaras and Svetambaras Images of Mahavira are paraded in the streets with much pomp and celebration in India.
Obon Japanese people keep the memory of their ancestors alive with a festival held during the summer called Obon. People put lit candles in lanterns and float them on rivers and seas. They also visit and clean the graves of those who have died. In the ancient city of Kyoto, people light giant bonfire
Passover The highlight of this major Jewish holiday is the Passover seder. During these two special dinners, families read from a book called the Haggadah about the ancient Israelites’ exodus — or flight — from Egypt more than 3,000 years ago. While they honor their ancestors, Jews reaffirm the importance of freedom
Ramadan Ramadan is observed in ninth month of the Islamic calendar year. Muslims do not eat, drink or smoke from sunrise to sunset during the entire month. Eid-al-fitr is celebrated at the end of Ramadan.
Vesak This festival celebrates the Birthday of Buddha. In one day, the Buddhists celebrate the birth, enlightenment and death of Buddha. This festival takes place on the first full moon of May.